Duties & Responsibilities of Engineer Wings
I know PWD department have a pyramidal structure. Chief Engineers at the top of the pyramid. Then come Superintending Engineers, Executive Engineers, Assistant Engineers and Sub-Assistant Engineers. I like to know the detailed duties and responsibilities of each wing of the pyramid.

I have another question. What is the difference between Directorate and Department?

Please mention any book in which I can find all this in detail. Thanks.
You may buy a book named, Manual of "PWD Code" by R.N. Bag from College Street or Kiran Sankar Roy Road (Near High Court).
A Department may comprise Directorates. A Deptt. has multifaceted activities compared to a Directorate (specific field).
Generally, a Department is under the administrative control of a Minister, part of whose power is exercised by the Secretary. Whereas, a Directorate is under the administrative control of a Department, and a Director holds the power to control the matters of the Directorate, being responsible to the through the Department Secretary, or in very special case direct to the Minister. A Department have a number of Directorates under its administrative control.
Duties & Responsibilities of Chief Engineer

Following rules are posted here from PWD Manual which speaks itself.


I. Chief Engineer

49. The Chief Engineer is the professional head of the Public Works Directorate and is responsible for the efficient working of the Directorate. He is the responsible professional adviser of Government in all matters relating to public works excluding archaeology.

50. It will be the duty of the Chief Engineer to recommend to Government removal, transfers and postings of Superintending or Executive Engineers within the Directorate in his charge, as well as the transfer of Assistant Engineers from one circle of superintendence to another.

51. The Chief Engineer will have not authority over the Audit Officer in regard to audit matters, but will have claim on him for assistance and advice in matters relating to accounts and finance. At the same time the Chief Engineer will be bound to arrange for the Audit Officer being kept fully cognizant of all proceedings and proposals, to enable the latter to fulfil his functions.

52. When Military Works are placed under the administration of the Public Works Department, questions relating to military detail will be referred by the Chief Engineer to the General Officer Commanding Divisions or Brigades. The Chief Engineer may correspond direct with the heads of departments on all matters relating to details of buildings or works appertaining to those departments.

53. In regard to matters relating to finance and accounts, the Chief Engineer will—

(a) exercise a concurrent control, with the Accountant-General over the duties of the officers of the department in maintaining accounts and give legitimate supports to the Accountant-General in enforcing strict attention to the rules concerning the disbursement of money, the custody of stores and submission of accounts;

(b) prepare, annually, the portion of the budget estimates relating to works under his control; administer the grant, and with this object, keep a close watch over the progress of the expenditure against it, with a view to seeing that no excess is permitted to occur, and that, if additional funds are necessary, application for the same is made;

(c) see that the grant is fully expended in so far as is consistent with general economy and the prevention of large expenditure in the closing month of the year.

(d) also see that any money which is not likely to be needed during the year is promptly surrendered so as to allow of its appropriation for other purposes by the proper authority.
Duties & Responsibilities of Superintending Engineer

II. Superintending Engineer

54. The administrative unit of the Directorate is the Circle, in charge of a Superintending Engineer who is responsible to the Chief Engineer for the administration and general professional control of public works in charge of officers of the Directorate within his circle.

55. It is the duty of the Superintending Engineer to inspect the state of various work within his circle, and to satisfy himself that the system of management prevailing is efficient and economical. Besides regular tours for inspection it is also the duty of the Superintending Engineer to proceed to any place within his jurisdiction to report on any important design or work, or on any serious accident or threatened danger connected with the works within his charge.

56. The Superintending Engineer is required to ascertain and report on the efficiency of the subordinate, office, and petty establishments, and to see that staff employed in each division is actually necessary and adequate for its management. He will also examine the condition of surveying and mathematical instruments at the headquarters of divisions.

57. Superintending Engineers are empowered to transfer and post executive subordinates, that is, officers below the rank of those belonging to the State Services within their respective circles and to recommend transfer to another circle.

58. A Superintending Engineer may correspond direct with any of local authorities, civil or military, within his circle. He will address General Officer Commanding Divisions or Brigades through their Staff Officers, and all other officers direct.

59. The superintending Engineer will—

(a) inspect the various work in progress within his circle and satisfy himself that the system of management prevailing is efficient and economical; also inspect periodically all important public buildings and other works within his jurisdiction;

(b) see that different articles in stock are duly verified according to the rules laid down and that there is no accumulation of stock in any division beyond its requirements;

(c) see that no delay is allowed to occur in the submission of Completion Reports.

(d) inspect the divisional offices at least once a year and forward, for the information of the Chief Engineer, reports of his inspections of Divisional Offices detailing therein the results of his examination of initial accounts, accounts of stocks, tools and plant and stock manufactured, registered of works and other divisional books, mode of preparation of estimates, contract agreements, contractors’ accounts, system of recording plans and papers and office work generally;

(e) see that the authorised system of accounts is maintained throughout his circle;

(f) examine the books of Divisional Officers and their subordinates, and see that matters relating to the primary accounts are attended to personally by the Divisional and Subdivisional Officers, and that the accounts fairly represent the progress of each work;

(g) examine the register of works, watch the total expenditure the date under each sub-head of work in contrast with the sanctioned estimate, and see that revised estimates for any work, if required are submitted

(h) make it his special duty to see, during his tours, that the measurement books are carefully kept and measurements properly recorded, and that they are complete records of the actual measurements of each kind of work done for which certificates have been granted.
Duties & Responsibilities of Government Architect

III. Government Architect

60. It is the duty of the Government Architect—

(a) to advice Government on all estimates and plans for public buildings which require the sanction of the Government of India or of the State Government and also to undertake the preparation of such plans and estimates when called upon to do so.

(b) To advice and assist Government in all matters relating to the architecture of public buildings.

(c) To enter into direct communication with Superintending Engineers, and when so authorised, with any of their Executive Engineers, in regard to all matters of constructive or decorative detail relating to public buildings in course of design or construction.

(d) To inspect important public buildings while under construction, and to offer such advice or recommendation as may be necessary.

(e) To submit an annual report to Government (through the Chief Engineer) on the architectural work of the year in the State of West Bengal with brief descriptions of the more important public buildings sanctioned or completed during the year.

(f) To prepare designs, without claiming additional remuneration, for any public building which require the sanction of the Government of India, and the Government of West Bengal, irrespective of the source from which the funds are derived for the construction or maintenance of such building.

(g) To give advice on designs for buildings of any importance, and on other questions requiring expert advice which may be referred to him by the Superintending Engineer when considered necessary, in order to benefit by his professional advice to the fullest extent.
Duties & Responsibilities of Executive Engineer

IV. Executive Engineer

61. The executive unit of the Directorate is the division, in charge of an Executive Engineer who is responsible to the Superintending Engineer for the execution and management of all works within his division.

62. An Executive Engineer can receive positive orders only from his own departmental superiors, the head of the Administration, or other civil officers duly authorised.

63. An Executive Engineer shall inspect, at least once a year, the more important buildings and works in his division and be responsible for seeing that proper measures are taken to preserve them and to prevent encroachment on Government lands in his charge. He will keep accurate plans of all such lands and take care that his subordinates make themselves acquainted with the boundaries and see that they are respected.

64. Every Executive Engineer is required to report immediately to the Superintending Engineer any important accident or unusual occurrence connected with his division and to state how he has acted in consequence.

65. An Executive Engineer may transfer subordinate engineers, that is, members of subordinate engineering service not holding charge of subdivisions, from one station to another within his own division without reference to superior authority. The transfers will be reported in the ordinary course to the Superintending Engineer.

66. Executive Engineers are strictly prohibited from making or permitting any deviations, except trifling ones, from any sanctioned design in the course of execution except under specific authority or in case of emergency, when the change should be forthwith reported to the Superintending Engineer.

67. The divisional accountant is responsible to the Executive Engineer for the correct compilation of the accounts of the division from the data supplied to him. The Executive Engineer is responsible to see his accounts regularly and punctually. The relative position of a divisional accountant to the Executive Engineer in respect of accounts is analogous to that of a Sub-divisional Officer to an Executive Engineer in respect of works, and the responsibilities of the latter for the work of the divisional accountant are similar to those which attach to him in respect of the execution of works in the charge of other subordinates.

68. Immediately on its becoming apparent that, whether from excess of certain rates or from departure from a design or any other cause, the estimated cost of a work is likely to be exceeded, the Executive Engineer is bound to report the fact forthwith to the Superintending Engineer, describing the nature and cause of the probable excess and asking for orders. This report should be made on the Works Slip Form. Executive Engineers must also submit the Works Slip, with such explanation as will enable the Superintending Engineer to pass orders on the case, on the occurrence, or the probability of the occurrence, of any irregularity in the rate or cost of a sub-head. All important liabilities, not brought to account, should also be noted on the Works Slip.
Note: It will not be necessary for the Executive Engineer to submit the Works Slip in cases in which he can pass finally excess over estimates under the powers delegated to him.

69. The Executive Engineer is responsible that the surveying and mathematical instruments in his division are properly cared for, and will report on their condition to the Superintending Engineer at the end of each working season. Any injury to the instruments due to neglect or carelessness should be made good at the expense of the officer or subordinate responsible for the damage.

70. (1) As laid down in Subsidiary Rule 69(ii) under the Treasury Rules, the existing strongroom of the Treasury and Sub-Treasury will be inspected annually by the Executive Engineer, or an experienced Assistant Engineer, or a Subordinate Engineer holding subdivisional charge, deputed by the Executive Engineer for the purpose. The inspecting officer will grant a certificate of safety and it is the duty of the Treasury Officer to obtain such a certificate annually. S.R. 69(i) under the Treasury Rules gives the condition of certificate to be granted for the first time.

(2) The Executive Engineer will be required to inspect at least once a year and to report on, and suggest measures for, the protection of any public monument or building of architectural or historical interest, whether public or private property, which appears likely to fall into decay, and he will be held responsible for any neglect or destruction which he has failed to report. In case of private property it will be for Government to decide what steps, ordinarily are to be taken to obviate further neglect or destruction.

71. The Executive Engineer, in addition to his other duties, will consider himself to be ex officio the professional adviser of all departments of Government within the limits of his charge. He will transact business of this sort with the chief military or civil authorities within his division, and it will be incumbent on him to see that no undue formalities are allowed to interfere with the performance of those duties which are essential or pressing.

72. Executive Engineers may, where the services of an officer of the Military Works Services are not available, be called upon by General Officers Commanding Divisions or Brigades to be members of committees appointed to select sites and determine general boundaries of cantonments.

73. Executive Engineers will address Officers Commanding Divisions, Brigades or stations through their Staff Officers.

74. The Executive Engineer-in-charge of a division will—

(a) not commence the construction of any work or spend public funds without the sanction of competent authority;

(b) close the accounts immediately after the work is furnished, and prepare the Completion Report, if required by the rules;

(c) take necessary steps for obtaining cash for the works under his control, keep accounts and submit them punctually to the Accountant General, under the rules for the time being in force;

(d) exercise a thorough and efficient control and check over his divisional accountant, and carefully examine the books, returns and paper from which the monthly accounts are compiled;

(e) be responsible for the correctness, in all respects, of the original records of cash and stores, receipts and expenditure and for seeing that complete vouchers are obtained;

(f) afford information in cases of probability of excess of actual overestimated cost of work, and report the fact forthwith to the Superintending Engineer describing the nature and cause of the probable excess; and

(g) be responsible for administering the grant made for public works in his division, and with this object keep a close watch over the progress of expenditure against it with a view to seeing that no excess is permitted to occur and that, if additional funds are necessary, application for the same is made in time.
Duties & Responsibilities of Assistant Engineer

V. Subdivisional Officer

75. A division is divided into subdivisions in charge of subdivisional officers who may be Assistant Engineers, or where no such officer is available Subordinate Engineers, who shall be responsible to the Executive Engineer in charge of the division for the management and execution of works within the subdivisions and also for the due submission of their accounts to the divisional officer.
Duties & Responsibilities of Sub-Assistant Engineer

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